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  • 1

    The cost of child health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand: a preliminary scoping study

    Summary

    Mills et al. assess the cost of child health inequities in Aotearoa New Zealand, using a Kaupapa Māori framework. They state that health inequities between Māori and non-Māori children are significant and persistent...

    Mills et al. assess the cost of child health inequities in Aotearoa New Zealand, using a Kaupapa Māori framework. They state that health inequities between Māori and non-Māori children are significant and persistent.

    They discuss Kaupapa Māori, saying that it is motivated by a Māori worldview and that it recognises the complexity of historical and contemporary realities. ‘Kaupapa Māori methodology privileges the indigenous Māori “voice”,’ they say, ‘validating and legitimising Māori language, knowledge, culture and values. It acknowledges and challenges the power dynamics that have created and maintain the unequal position of Māori in New Zealand society…’ Their analysis places Māori children at the centre (rather than the margins).

    They explain their use of quantitative epidemiological and economic costing methods. They note that placing a monetary value on children’s lives and discounting future benefits are approaches that do not fit easily within a Kaupapa Māori framework – and suggest that future Kaupapa Māori research could re-interpret cost benefit analysis theory.

    The authors then present the cost per year of child health inequities. They report that such inequities probably save the health sector money, but that the social costs of such inequities are substantial. They also note, in their discussion, that many significant ‘intangible’ costs are not captured by their analysis. In explaining the limitations of their study, they note that, because ‘part of the spectrum of a Kaupapa Māori approach parallels Critical Theory’, the values and assumptions inherent in current economic models are a major concern.

    They conclude by noting that although interventions to address child health inequities are available, investment in these is urgently needed. ‘As inequities in adult health are closely associated with inequities in childhood health,’ they say, ‘strategies to reduce inequities in child health should be given high priority…’

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  • 2

    From Kaupapa Māori Research to Re-Searching Kaupapa Māori: Making Our Contribution to Māori Survival

    Summary

    Mikaere reflects on Kaupapa Māori research, and relates her experience of it as a researcher. She discusses the emergence of Kaupapa Māori research, and its effect on Māori researchers and others within the academy. She also explores the notion of ‘research’ in detail, and explains the resistance to it at Te Wānanga o Raukawa (where she now works)...

    Mikaere reflects on Kaupapa Māori research, and relates her experience of it as a researcher. She discusses the emergence of Kaupapa Māori research, and its effect on Māori researchers and others within the academy. She also explores the notion of ‘research’ in detail, and explains the resistance to it at Te Wānanga o Raukawa (where she now works).

    She emphasises the importance of maintaining a ‘critical edge’. ‘If and when a kaupapa Māori approach to research eventually becomes more widely acknowledged by the “mainstream” research community, there is the danger that what was initiated as a starting point could come to be regarded as a final destination,’ she says. ‘What started out as a radical and inspiring departure from the constraints of former research practice could so easily be reduced to a checklist of criteria on [a funding] application form…’

    Mikaere asks why it is important for Māori to continue to engage in mātauranga Māori – and replies that the answer concerns the survival of Māori as Māori. She criticises the idea that research should necessarily build on research that has already been done, noting that there are serious problems with much of the research that has been done on Māori. Then, she discusses the distortion of Māori theories of existence by the importation of Western notions of hierarchy, using examples.

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    A Kaupapa Māori approach to a community cohort study of heart disease in New Zealand

    Summary

    Pitama et al. discuss the processes and protocols that were developed for the Hauora Manawa project, a research project on heart disease that was undertaken using a Kaupapa Māori methodology. They report on the first stage (of at least two stages) of the study...

    Pitama et al. discuss the processes and protocols that were developed for the Hauora Manawa project, a research project on heart disease that was undertaken using a Kaupapa Māori methodology. They report on the first stage (of at least two stages) of the study.

    The authors explain the definition of Māori that they used in recruiting participants. In doing so, they discuss their use of the electoral roll in recruiting both Māori and non-Māori participants (they discuss this in more detail, later in the article).

    They present Kaupapa Māori, which they describe as, ‘a conceptual framework that places Māori values, beliefs and experiences at the centre of the research process and locates resultant data within that social context.’ They note, also, that it provides a means of critiquing systems and structures, and their impact on Māori individuals and communities.

    Then, they present a detailed list of culturally appropriate protocols, which they developed for the project with two tribal authorities (Ngāti Kahungunu ki Wairoa Taiwhenua and Mana Whenua ki Waitaha – appropriate to the regions in which the research was conducted). Examples of these include ensuring that all research team members could engage in basic protocols in line with culturally accepted processes, and that the dissemination of data would be done in ways that were meaningful to the participants. They also note that, following a pilot clinic, they made some changes to their approach, to support the use of appropriate cultural protocols in their project.

    The authors state, in discussing the results of the study, that their use of a Māori name for the study, with a Māori motif on all of the information about the study, seemed to confuse some non-Māori, who assumed that they were not eligible for it. This, the authors explain, served as a barrier to recruitment.

    They then discuss their engagement with both tribal authorities and regional health authorities. They say that this was a lengthy process, but that it was helpful for funding applications; it also helped to ensure that only minor changes were necessary once the project had started.

    They also discuss the use of random selection – which there was concern over within the Wairoa district. ‘This was in large part due to the limited health resources within the rural community, and hence it was seen as unfair that only some Māori would benefit from the screening and intervention,’ they say. ‘To ensure that the concept of Māori collective privilege was not ignored, the research team agreed to screen some additional members of the community, on the basis of need, whose data would not be included in the study.’ This approach was acceptable to Ngāti Kahungunu ki Wairoa Taiwhenua – and ensured that they continued to endorse the project.

    In concluding, the authors discuss the benefits to their project of a Kaupapa Māori methodology. They note that this resulted in high levels of engagement from tribal authorities and Māori participants. It also simplified strategies around aligning clinical protocols and processes with Māori cultural beliefs, and ensured the inclusion of stakeholders’ opinions and ideas within the research.

    ‘The use of Kaupapa Māori Methodology that dictated the project be Māori-led,’ they say, ‘also supported a multicultural team to establish how things would be undertaken in the study and provided professional development opportunities for non-Māori research and clinical staff to develop cultural expertise and engage with Māori communities.’

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  • 11

    A Conversation About Kaupapa Māori Theory and Research

    Summary

    In this conversation, Pihama discusses Kaupapa Māori theory and research with Helen Potter...

    In this conversation, Pihama discusses Kaupapa Māori theory and research with Helen Potter.

    Pihama explores the relationship between Kaupapa Māori theory and research. She relates the development of the term ‘Kaupapa Māori theory’ to kura kaupapa Māori (Māori language primary schools), and recalls the discussion that resulted in its naming.

    She argues that Kaupapa Māori is not singular – comparing it to critical theory, which encompasses hundreds of types of theory. ‘We envisaged a kaupapa Māori theory that could encompass hundreds of types of theory too,’ she says. ‘In the conversations we had, it was never about having one theory. It was about opening a gate, or opening a space, where we could then begin to develop theories that fitted under a kaupapa Māori banner.’

    She states that there are not a lot of people writing about, and trying to expand, Kaupapa Māori. She then discusses her PhD thesis, one part of which dealt with the positioning and mana of Māori women in a way that aligns with Kaupapa Māori. ‘I have so much belief in the depth of our knowledge,’ she says. ‘I have a really strong belief that we have thousands of theories and we need to be bringing them forward.’ She also notes that there are ‘elements’ that underpin Kaupapa Māori theory: it is grounded in being Māori, in te reo Māori, in tikanga Māori, and in mātauranga Māori.

    Pihama discusses transformation and decolonisation, which both involve political intent. She expresses concern at the ‘depoliticisation’ of Kaupapa Māori theory and research. ‘There’s been a real move,’ she says, ‘to leave the political stuff and just take a bit of the cultural stuff. That’s just not good enough because our realities remain the same.’ She emphasises the importance of the ‘tino rangatiratanga principle’ to Kaupapa Māori (and, in doing so, mentions relationships between Māori organisations and funding agencies).

    She encourages future Kaupapa Māori researchers to be ‘grounded in yourself’. Book-learning is not necessarily a bad thing, she says, but Māori researchers need to be able to connect. ‘We need to be able to have those relationships [with our whānau, hapū, and iwi] because central to any form of kaupapa Māori research methodology is relationships… It’s about forging really strong relationships that are lifelong.’ These relationships do not end when the partnership is no longer required.

    She finishes by discussing the political dimension of Kaupapa Māori theory and research – saying everything can be framed in a strongly political way.

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  • 12

    Kaupapa Māori Education: Research as the Exposed Edge

    Summary

    Penetito says that research is one of the many ways in which Māori can challenge ‘the Pākehā world that takes itself for granted’. He says that it is important that we challenge all of the taken-for-granted worlds in which we live, regardless of which worlds they are...

    Penetito says that research is one of the many ways in which Māori can challenge ‘the Pākehā world that takes itself for granted’. He says that it is important that we challenge all of the taken-for-granted worlds in which we live, regardless of which worlds they are.

    He argues that it is wrong to research Māori as if Māori were a homogenous entity. There are, he says, numerous ways of being Māori – and he details some of them. He suggests that the dominant whakapapa definition of being Māori is a result of preoccupation with questions of identity.

    Penetito states that Māori research is critical for Māori advancement, because research can explain the way things are, and because it gives us confidence in current and future developments. He then discusses Kaupapa Māori research, which, he says, is participatory and action-oriented, involves a commitment to social justice, and is part of an international movement among indigenous peoples.

    He discusses theory, and the resistance to it that he has observed in his Māori students. He tells his students to ‘get over it’: ‘You need to learn these things. You need to be able to put it alongside what you have learned in other contexts like your home, your marae, your hapū, and your iwi. But don’t say you don’t need it…’

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    Kaupapa Māori Theory: Transforming Theory in Aotearoa

    Summary

    Pihama addresses the development of Kaupapa Māori as a foundation for theory and research, emphasising the importance of tino rangatiratanga and mana motuhake. She then explores Kaupapa Māori theory, which she describes as ‘a theoretical framework that has grown from both mātauranga Māori and from within Māori movements for change’. She positions Kaupapa Māori theory within discussions of theory in indigenous movements worldwide, and then characterises it as ‘an evolving and organic theoretical development’...

    Pihama addresses the development of Kaupapa Māori as a foundation for theory and research, emphasising the importance of tino rangatiratanga and mana motuhake. She then explores Kaupapa Māori theory, which she describes as ‘a theoretical framework that has grown from both mātauranga Māori and from within Māori movements for change’. She positions Kaupapa Māori theory within discussions of theory in indigenous movements worldwide, and then characterises it as ‘an evolving and organic theoretical development’.

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    Developing Services in Te Rohe o Ngai Tahu for Māori with Gambling Related Problems

    Summary

    Robertson et al. discuss the capacity and willingness of problem gambling services to engage with the development of effective strategies for Māori living in te rohe o Ngāi Tahu. The authors use a Kaupapa Māori approach, conducting interviews with (Māori and non-Māori) problem gambling service providers, as well as Māori health providers. They then present a framework to guide the development of problem gambling services in te rohe o Ngāi Tahu, and suggest that many of the issues identified will be relevant to other areas...

    Robertson et al. discuss the capacity and willingness of problem gambling services to engage with the development of effective strategies for Māori living in te rohe o Ngāi Tahu. The authors use a Kaupapa Māori approach, conducting interviews with (Māori and non-Māori) problem gambling service providers, as well as Māori health providers. They then present a framework to guide the development of problem gambling services in te rohe o Ngāi Tahu, and suggest that many of the issues identified will be relevant to other areas.

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  • 18

    Politics and knowledge: Kaupapa Māori and mātauranga Māori

    Summary

    Royal addresses the distinction between Kaupapa Māori and mātauranga Māori. He suggests that, unlike Kaupapa Māori, mātauranga Māori is not explicitly interested in the ethnic category ‘Māori’; he also argues that it does not provide a strategy. He says that Kaupapa Māori and mātauranga Māori are not unrelated, and have a lot to gain from each other...

    Royal addresses the distinction between Kaupapa Māori and mātauranga Māori. He suggests that, unlike Kaupapa Māori, mātauranga Māori is not explicitly interested in the ethnic category ‘Māori’; he also argues that it does not provide a strategy. He says that Kaupapa Māori and mātauranga Māori are not unrelated, and have a lot to gain from each other.

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    Becoming a Kaupapa Māori Researcher

    Summary

    Smith discusses her journey as a Kaupapa Māori researcher. As well as offering an explanation for why Māori are suspicious of research, she argues that research that strengthens Māori is invaluable, and suggests ways in which it can be beneficial. She also explains how she helped to establish the first independent Kaupapa Māori research organisation, Te Atawhai o te Ao (Independent Māori Institute for Environment and Health), and outlines its kaupapa...

    Smith discusses her journey as a Kaupapa Māori researcher. As well as offering an explanation for why Māori are suspicious of research, she argues that research that strengthens Māori is invaluable, and suggests ways in which it can be beneficial. She also explains how she helped to establish the first independent Kaupapa Māori research organisation, Te Atawhai o te Ao (Independent Māori Institute for Environment and Health), and outlines its kaupapa.

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    Pretty difficult: Implementing kaupapa Māori theory in English-medium primary schools

    Summary

    Bishop recounts the difficulties encountered in attempting to implement Te Kotahitanga, ‘a large-scale kaupapa Māori school reform project that seeks to address educational disparities by improving the educational achievement of Māori students in mainstream schooling.’ He highlights three impediments, and suggests useful ways of conceptualising challenges...

    Bishop recounts the difficulties encountered in attempting to implement Te Kotahitanga, ‘a large-scale kaupapa Māori school reform project that seeks to address educational disparities by improving the educational achievement of Māori students in mainstream schooling.’ He highlights three impediments, and suggests useful ways of conceptualising challenges.

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    Kaupapa Maori Theory: Theorizing Indigenous Transformation of Education & Schooling

    Summary

    Graham Smith examines a period in New Zealand history, the 1980s, that resulted in significant societal changes for Māori. He challenges the view that the ‘revolution’ that occurred during this period was about language revitalisation initiatives. ‘The ‘real’ revolution of the 1980’s,’ he says, ‘was a shift in mindset of large numbers of Maori people – a shift away from waiting for things to be done to them, to doing things for themselves…’..

    Graham Smith examines a period in New Zealand history, the 1980s, that resulted in significant societal changes for Māori. He challenges the view that the ‘revolution’ that occurred during this period was about language revitalisation initiatives. ‘The ‘real’ revolution of the 1980’s,’ he says, ‘was a shift in mindset of large numbers of Maori people – a shift away from waiting for things to be done to them, to doing things for themselves…’

    He argues that, in the 1980s, there was a change in focus, from decolonisation to ‘conscientization’ or ‘consciousness-raising’. He explains Antonio Gramsci’s notion of ‘hegemony’ – which occurs when oppressed groups take on dominant ideas uncritically, ‘colonizing themselves’ – and states that conscientisation is the counter-strategy to this. He says that his preference for conscientisation over decolonisation is grounded in a Kaupapa Māori approach, which is positive and proactive.

    He states that the lesson of the Kaupapa Māori approach, for indigenous peoples, is that transformation has to occur in a confrontation with the coloniser and ‘ourselves’. He identifies sites of struggle, elements of potentially ‘useful’ theory and theorising, and components of theory and theorising, for indigenous peoples to transform themselves. Then, he discusses the radical change in Māori education and schooling saying that the commitment of Māori adults and parents to the potential of education was critical to the revolution.

    Smith presents six crucial ‘change factors’ in Kaupapa Māori praxis, including:

    - the principle of self-determination or relative autonomy

    - the principle of validating and legitimating cultural aspirations and identity

    - the principle of incorporating culturally preferred pedagogy

    - the principle of mediating socio-economic and home difficulties

    - the principle of incorporating cultural structures which emphasise the ‘collective’ rather than the individual (such as whānau)

    - the principle of a shared and collective vision/philosophy

    Smith notes that Kaupapa Māori supports the use of all theory that can positively support Māori advancement. He contends that Kaupapa Māori’s emergence as an intervention strategy critiques and re-constitutes Western notions of conscientisation, resistance and transformative praxis as inter-related and non-lineal. ‘The Kaupapa Maori educational interventions represent the evolving of a more sophisticated response by Maori to ‘freeing’ themselves from multiple oppression(s) and exploitation,’ he says.

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    On Tricky Ground: Researching the Native in the Age of Uncertainty

    Summary

    Smith explores research undertaken in an indigenous context...

    Smith explores research undertaken in an indigenous context.

    She offers a definition of indigenous peoples, and says, ‘native communities are not homogenous, do not agree on the same issues, and do not live in splendid isolation from the world.’ She notes that indigenous communities have internal relations of power, which empower some and disempower others.

    She explains the troubled significance of research for indigenous peoples, and says that we should learn from the past. Research, she says, is connected to power; for this reason, it is important to maintain the connections between researchers, indigenous communities, and the larger political struggle for decolonisation.

    Smith outlines different conceptions of indigenous research. She discusses Kaupapa Māori – which, she points out, is not called ‘indigenist’. ‘There are strong reasons for such a naming,’ she says, ‘as the struggle has been seen as one over Māori language and the ability by Māori as Māori to name the world, theorize the world, and to research back to power.’ She also recounts its history, emphasising the importance of education to this.

    She discusses decolonisation, saying, ‘Decolonization is political and disruptive even when the strategies employed are pacifist because anything that requires a major change of worldview, that forces a society to confront its past and address it at a structural and institutional level that challenges systems of power, is indeed political.’

    She then outlines the effects of globalisation on knowledge and indigenous peoples, and the understanding of it that indigenous experience brings.

    Smith asks the question, Who regulates research? She argues that ethical review boards fail to adequately represent marginalised and vulnerable groups. ‘If a marginalized group is represented,’ she says, ‘its voice is muted as one of many voices of equal weight but not of equal power…’

    She suggests that an indigenous approach to research can challenge those who are involved in research to understand its history as a colonial institution. It can offer alternative ways of knowing and thinking about ethical research.

    Reference

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    Research Issues Related to Māori Education

    Summary

    Smith discusses the implications of the Sexton Report (a report on education, commissioned by the Business Roundtable) for research on Māori, and explores how education policy developers might conduct research that is appropriate for Māori. He contextualises his analysis by stating his ‘influences’, which include a ‘Kaupapa Māori base’, a politics of change, a rejection of pessimism, and a commitment to the importance of struggle...

    Smith discusses the implications of the Sexton Report (a report on education, commissioned by the Business Roundtable) for research on Māori, and explores how education policy developers might conduct research that is appropriate for Māori. He contextualises his analysis by stating his ‘influences’, which include a ‘Kaupapa Māori base’, a politics of change, a rejection of pessimism, and a commitment to the importance of struggle.

    He describes Kaupapa Māori as ‘a ‘local’ theoretical positioning related to being Māori’, which takes ‘for granted’ the validity and legitimacy of Māori, views the survival and revival of Māori language and culture as imperative, and is concerned with the struggle for autonomy over Māori cultural well-being and lives.

    Smith raises a number of concerns, held by Māori, about research generally; he also relates some of the factors that have prevented change to educational research on Māori in the past. He then outlines four ‘models’ for ‘culturally appropriate research’:

    1. the tiaki model, in which authoritative Māori people guide and mediate research

    2. the whāngai model, in which researchers are adopted by a community or whānau

    3. the power sharing model, in which researchers seek the assistance of a community to meaningfully support the development of research

    4. the empowering outcomes model, in which research has positive benefits for Māori first and foremost, and is designed to provide information that Māori want to know

    Reference

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    Story-ing the development of kaupapa Māori – a review of sorts

    Summary

    In this speech, Smith discusses Kaupapa Māori research. ‘[Kaupapa Māori] is more than, and less than, other comparative terms,’ she says. ‘It is more than a theory and less than a theory; it is more than a paradigm and less than a paradigm; it is more than a methodology and less than a methodology. It is something much more fluid.’..

    In this speech, Smith discusses Kaupapa Māori research. ‘[Kaupapa Māori] is more than, and less than, other comparative terms,’ she says. ‘It is more than a theory and less than a theory; it is more than a paradigm and less than a paradigm; it is more than a methodology and less than a methodology. It is something much more fluid.’

    Smith states that Kaupapa Māori research has attempted to disrupt mainstream approaches to Māori, including the idea that there is a ‘pure’ Māori voice to be found. She then discusses the relationship between Kaupapa Māori and knowledge.

    She relates Kaupapa Māori research to the development of kura kaupapa Māori, and explains the history of the term. She says, ‘To me, kaupapa Māori is a practice; it’s a way of thinking about everything that we do in research.’

    She evaluates post-colonial critique, arguing that critique is useful but that it does not necessarily provide a way forward. ‘That I think is also part of what a kaupapa is meant to do, she says. ‘It’s meant to take you forward...’

    She then discusses challenges ahead – and argues that the power of Kaupapa Māori research is in being able to use our minds to think through such challenges.

    She also discusses her experience teaching Kaupapa Māori.

    Reference

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    Neither Qualitative nor Quantitative: Kaupapa Māori, Methodology and the Humanities

    Summary

    Somerville explores the relationship between Kaupapa Māori and the humanities, from within her discipline, English (or, as she would like to call it, Literary Studies). She problematises this relationship, challenging both Kaupapa Māori and English. With a poem by Evelyn Patuawa-Nathan, she ultimately affirms the importance of the humanities...

    Somerville explores the relationship between Kaupapa Māori and the humanities, from within her discipline, English (or, as she would like to call it, Literary Studies). She problematises this relationship, challenging both Kaupapa Māori and English. With a poem by Evelyn Patuawa-Nathan, she ultimately affirms the importance of the humanities.

    Reference

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    Achievements, orthodoxies and science in Kaupapa Māori schooling

    Summary

    Stewart states that discussions around Kura Kaupapa Māori are ideological rather than educational, and that this results in difficulties that hinder student achievement...

    Stewart states that discussions around Kura Kaupapa Māori are ideological rather than educational, and that this results in difficulties that hinder student achievement.

    She addresses the disjuncture between Kaupapa Māori theory and practice, saying, ‘Lack of awareness of the complex philosophical debates underpinning Kaupapa Māori can encourage [Kura Kaupapa Māori] practitioners to adopt a rule-following approach, which leads to orthodoxy. Orthodoxy acts to suppress opposing ideas, and greatly increases the tendency for unhelpful policies to continue unchallenged.’

    Stewart engages critically with arguments put forward by Elizabeth Rata, ‘the prominent published critic of [Kura Kaupapa Māori]’.

    She also explores utopianism in Kaupapa Māori theory and practice.

    Reference

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    An exploration of kaupapa Maori research, its principles, processes and applications

    Summary

    Walker et al. discuss Kaupapa Māori research, and provide case studies of Kaupapa Māori research projects...

    Walker et al. discuss Kaupapa Māori research, and provide case studies of Kaupapa Māori research projects.

    They begin by exploring the historical context in which Kaupapa Māori emerged.

    They note that Kaupapa Māori research is related to Māori ownership of knowledge and the validity of Māori ways of doing. Acknowledging the difficulties involved in defining it, they present ways in which it can be helpfully understood. They also distinguish it from other types of research involving Māori, including ‘culturally safe or sensitive’ research. ‘Importantly and significantly,’ they say, ‘the kaupapa Maori movement critique[s] the dominant hegemony of westernized positivistic research.’

    The authors state that five principles form a framework for Kaupapa Māori research: tino rangatiratanga, social justice, a Māori worldview, te reo Māori, and the concept of whānau. They explore each of these separately.

    They say, ‘One of the idiosyncrasies of kaupapa Maori research is that writers do not tell you how to do kaupapa Maori research; instead, they tend to focus on what it does and the effects that it has.’ They suggest that the research methods that Kaupapa Māori incorporates are not specific to Māori. They also mention ownership of research.

    They discuss the stipulation that the researcher be Māori, the involvement of non-Māori in Kaupapa Māori research, and what is required of Kaupapa Māori researchers. They also discuss the role of kaumātua in Kaupapa Māori research.

    They address the concern – held mainly by non-Māori – that Kaupapa Māori is less rigorous than other kinds of research. ‘Kaupapa Maori research is first a philosophy, then a strategy, and when it is properly carried out, it will produce acceptable research,’ they say. They then relate it to other kinds of research (including participatory action research).

    The authors provide three case studies of Kaupapa Māori research undertaken by Māori researchers – Maatua Whangai o Otepoti; Tapuwai: Waka as a Vehicle for Community Action; and Maori Women’s Experience of Cervical Screening.

    They suggest that Kaupapa Māori can inform research generally, and that its ‘main ideas’ will be transferable to indigenous research internationally. ‘Nevertheless,’ they say, ‘the main beneficiaries are Maori, and kaupapa Maori research will always be focused on enhancing the quality of life for Maori.’

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